Albert Schweitzer was a genius in many fields; the son of a Lutheran pastor in Alsace-Lorraine, he helped lead a revival of works by J.S. Bach and wrote a two-volume biography of him, as well as books that revolutionized the study of the New Testament, “The Quest of the Historical Jesus” (1906) and “The Mysticism of Paul the Apostle” (1931). These crystallized his devotion to ethics and led to his earning a degree in medicine in 1913. He and his wife Helene Bresslau established a clinic in Lambaréné, Gabon, where he served for almost 50 years (and was “found” by David Livingstone). In 1952 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize; he was a critic of European colonialism in Africa and nuclear weapons. Above: back in his clinic in Gabon in 1924, once he was able to return after World War I. He died in Lambaréné at age 90.